Two weeks ago, I was at LOAD, where I did a tutorial on Debian Packaging. Unfortunately, I wasn't doing very well physically, and as a result my preparation wasn't what I had hoped for. It ended up being not so much a tutorial as a walking the audience through packaging a piece of software—in casu NBD with debhelper in dh mode. Not very difficult, but since there's nothing for people to fall back on afterwards, it may help if they have a writedown of what I said during the session; and I promised to put it on my blog. So, here goes. However, note that the canonical written tutorial on Debian Packaging is here.
With apologies to readers of Planet Debian, most of whom for which all this is probably old hat.
Unlike RPM packaging, in Debian, the data that tells the debian packaging system how to package a piece of software is functionally split among a number of files. All these files go in a toplevel directory in the source package, (unsurprisingly) called 'debian'.
There are four files that are required for every Debian package: the control, changelog, copyright, and rules files. Without these files, dpkg-dev will fail to produce a package—any package.
The first, the control file, contains metadata on packages: the name of the package, its description, the dependencies, etc. Basically, almost all the information you see when you run 'apt-cache show <package>' (with one exception) is in the control file. If you have a source package that builds multiple binary packages, then you should have multiple 'Package' stanzas in the control file.
In my opinion, creating a control file is easiest done by copying a control file from another (similar?) package, and modifying it to suit the software you're dealing with.
The one exception, the one bit of metadata that is not found in the control file is the version number: this data is contained in the changelog file. This file looks like a free-form file for the most part, but it really is a machine-parsable format; as such, it's best to edit it with specialized tools, such as the debian-changelog-mode in the emacs editor, or the debchange script, also available as dch, from the devscripts package. In the changelog, you should document any changes you make to the package, making sure the version number (top line), distribution (unstable, experimental, stable, ...; top line), urgency (top line; used mainly when testing needs to be updated urgently for things like security updates), author (bottom line) and date and time (also bottom line) are correct.
The copyright file, unsurprisingly, should contain the copyrights statements of the original software, and the license (or a reference to a copy of the same license text under /usr/share/common-licenses). This file is still free-format in most packages today, although a machine-readable format for this file has recently been defined. Of the four required files, this is probably the most boring one, but hey, we can't like everything we do.
The last file, the rules file, is where all the action happens. This file is defined as a Makefile, of which the targets are called for various parts of the build system.
The rules file has a number of required targets (such as build, clean, and others), but if you're using debhelper in dh mode, you don't need to worry about those; instead, you can use the following simple rules file:
#!/usr/bin/make -f %: dh $@
With the first line, the shebang, we make clear that this is a makefile, and that it should be called by make. The next is a generic target (the % is a wildcard for make), with just one command: 'call dh with the name of the target being called'. Since dh implements all required rules targets, that immediately gets you a working package. Go ahead, try! Run 'dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot', and see what happens.
Did that work? Maybe, maybe not. First, you'll have seen loads of warnings about something involving a "compatibility level". This is from debhelper; this compatibility level, or 'API level' if you wish, allows debhelper to move forward and make incompatible changes without breaking all the existing packages out there; whenever the compat level is bumped, some new functionality will only be made available if you also raise the compat level in your source package (and then you'll know you may have some changes to do in your package). Since the original debhelper, over a decade ago, did not have a compat level, the absense of a compat level signals compat level 1, which is far outdated now, and about to be unsupported. Hence the warning. The fix is simple: create a file debian/compat containing a single number: the compatibility level you're working with. It's best to use the most recent level which debhelper supports when you create your package, which as of this writing is level 9.
Ignoring the compatibility level, if you're building a software package which uses a well-established build system, and you only build one binary package out of that, chances are pretty high that everything worked as expected. If not, you'll have more work.
Building multiple packages requires that you tell debhelper somehow which file goes in which package. You can do this with a file debian/package.install, where package is the name of the binary package you're building.
The install file is read by dh_install, one of many tools in the debhelper suite. You see, in the old days (before debhelper 7), debhelper was just a suite of tools, which required that you wrote a debian/rules file containing all the individual tools to be called in the correct order. This mode is still supported; in fact, even if you do use dh, you do, since all that tool really does is call the right tools in the right order; the real work is done by the invidual tools. They all have their own man page; to understand how dh_install chooses which file to put in which package, go read man dh_install. Go ahead, do it now; I'll wait.
Back? Good. You've now learned that dh_install can install files either from the source directory (useful for packages containing only scripts or so), or from a directory debian/tmp. If you use an autotools-based software package, this is what dh will do for you.
When you called dpkg-builpackage above, you may also have noticed that the output contained many lines starting with dh_, one of which said dh_install. As you may have guessed, dh echoes every debhelper command just before it will execute them. This allows you to look at the output, and see what's happening. For more detail, set the environment variable DH_VERBOSE to a non-zero value.
I'm sure you'll have seen one or two debhelper tools that could make your package better. Go ahead, go and read their man pages to see what they do, and how they do it. Most of these will require you to create a file debian/package.toolname to specify details.
In some cases, you may need to specify command-line arguments to the tool to get it to do what you want. In yet other cases, the tool won't support what you need it to do, and you'll have to do something manual. What to do now? The dh command line doesn't support adding extra commands easily. Does this mean you'd have to revert to old-style long, non-dh debian/rules files?
Luckily, no. You can create an override target. If dh detects that you have such a target for a particular tool, it will call that target instead of the tool. This target's rules can then call the tool in question (or not), and add any command line arguments, or extra commands, as needed.
An override target is a normal Makefile target with a name of the form override_dh_something, where dh_something is the name of the tool you wish to override.
At this point, I'd reached almost the end of my two allotted hours, and a member of the audience asked how to make dpkg deal with configuration files.
The answer is, you don't need to do anything! Not if you use debhelper, anyway; all you need to do is install the file in /etc. Since debian policy specifies that all files in /etc need to be configuration files and that no conffiles may be placed anywhere but in /etc, debhelper will automatically mark any file installed in /etc as a conffile, which will cause dpkg to ask the user what to do with changes to such files.
Note that in Debian parlance, a conffile is not the same thing as a configuration file: a conffile is a configuration file that is part of the binary package (i.e., if you call 'dpkg --contents' on the .deb file, you'll see it in the output), whereas a configuration file is a file (any file, including files generated during or after installation of the .deb file on a system).
Occasionally, this is also why some differences to configuration files are managed through debconf, while others aren't: the ones managed through debconf are non-conffile configuration files managed through ucf, whereas the others are conffiles.
So in the simplest of cases, if you want to install a configuration file and you want to make sure it's protected against accidental overwrites by package upgrades, all you need to do is make sure it's installed to /etc; debhelper will do the rest.
And that concludes this introduction. Please note it's only an introduction, not a full-blown tutorial; while this will allow you to get started, you may have to learn a bit more if you wish to eventually upload a package to Debian.